Concussion Information

Concussion, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI)

Post-concussion syndrome
“Post-concussion syndrome is a complex disorder in which various symptoms – such as headaches and dizziness – last for weeks and sometimes months after the injury that caused the concussion. Concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury, usually occurring after a blow to the head.  Loss of consciousness isn’t required for a diagnosis of concussion or post-concussion syndrome.  In fact, the risk of post-concussion syndrome doesn’t appear to be associated with the severity of the initial injury.  In most people, post – concussion syndrome symptoms occur within the first seven to 10 days and go away within three months, though they can persist for a year or more.” (

Brain Injury Association of America:  Brain Injury in Children

Susan Davies
Author of:  Managing Concussions in Schools:  A Guide to Recognition, Response, and Leadership
Advocates training teams of school personnel to monitor students during return to school after head injury.  Listen to her “Academic Minute”

Center for Disease Control fact sheet for school personnel, managing return to school/play

What is a concussion?  Video from the CDC

Healthy offers advice on when children may return to school following a concussion.

Ted Talk: NFL’s David Camarillo
repeated head injury, helmets, find out the leading cause of concussion, debunks/corrects CDC video

Ted Talk:  Neuropsychologist Kim Gorgens:  Protecting the brain against concussion
High School athletes three times more likely to sustain catastrophic brain injury than college age peers.  Risk of repeated injury greater for youth.  TBI and early onset Alzheimer’s

Repetitive Head Injury Syndrome and Second Impact Syndrome discusses the issue of multiple impacts.

University of Rochester Medical Center
Test your knowledge of concussion with this eight question quiz.

Common Misconceptions

Misconception:  Children recover more readily from TBI’s because their brains are more plastic.
Reality:  A child’s growing brain is actually more susceptible to injury.  Damage can be life-long and may only become apparent as the child reaches developmental milestones.

Misconception:  Helmets protect you from getting a concussion.
Reality:  Although a helmet can be very helpful in preventing injury to the skull, it does little to protect the brain during rapid deceleration.

Misconception:  College level football has a high rate of TBI.
Reality:  The rate is significantly higher at the high school level.

Misconception:  If you don’t black out, it is not a concussion.
Reality:  Concussions are not so easily diagnosed.

Misconception:  People who suffer a concussion will have difficulty thinking clearly.
Reality:  Although this can be true, other symptoms including changes in emotional state, physical systems, sensory sensitivity, and sleep disruption are just as common.

Misconception:  If a person feels fine, they probably are.
Reality:  Actually symptoms often do not appear for several days.

Misconception: An athlete can return to competition as soon as they are symptom free.
Reality:  Actually the brain is still healing, if a second concussion were to occur the damage could be much more severe.

Misconception: Boys are more likely to suffer sports related concussions.
Reality:  Concussions occur more often in girls’ sports according to American Academy of Pediatrics.

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